Research Initiatives for the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America

Project Overview

Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA) represents the country’s leading innovative biopharmaceutical research companies, which are devoted to discovering and developing medicines that enable patients to live longer, healthier, and more productive lives. Insight conducted the following health research initiatives in support of this mission:

Opioid Epidemic Literature Review. The Insight team conducted an environmental scan on facts relevant to the use and availability of Naloxone to treat opioid overdose. The work included a scan of grey literature to identify commonly cited costs of Naloxone, mechanisms through which state Medicaid agencies purchased the medication, the variety of modes through which Naloxone was distributed across states, funding mechanisms available to expand training on the administration of Nalaxone, and commonly cited reasons for Naloxone shortages in the United States.

Medicaid Drug Formulary Evidence Review. The Insight team conducted a Medicaid drug formulary literature review summarizing evidence on the effects of limiting Medicaid beneficiaries’ or others’ access to prescription drugs through formulary restrictions. This review resulted in a declaration delivered to the Massachusetts Office of Health and Human Services regarding evidence surrounding the negative effects of closed formularies in Medicaid programs.

Cost Burden and Health Benefits of Low Rates of Medication Adherence. The Insight team reviewed evidence and developed an interactive model showcasing the cost burden resulting from medication nonadherence among Medicaid enrollees with chronic conditions. The work included an analysis of Medicaid claims data, construction of models for cost estimation, and interpretation of findings. In addition to a final report, the project resulted in datagraphics that focus on the overall cost burden of low rates of medication adherence among Medicaid enrollees with chronic conditions in the United States as a whole and in example states.


Final reports, national- and state-level infographics