As of 2018, women represented 16.5 percent of active duty and 22.2 percent of reserve duty service members. As more servicewomen are being deployed to combat locations, it has become increasingly important to understand how deployment affects military mothers and their families. This literature review, authored by Insight’s military and veteran support team, summarizes the available literature on the impact of deployments on military mothers, identifying areas of consensus and research gaps. This report describes the prevalence of military mothers and summarizes research on challenges faced by military mothers related to parenting, household roles, and family dynamics. It concludes with an overview of programs for military parents overall.